diy PCB methods

Classifications by conductive material:
  1. copper paths from solid copper foil
  2. copper foil machining:
    1. Mask and chemical etching:
      1. laser toner mask
        1. chemical transfer (CTF)
          1. acetone or "density toner" transfer
        2. Foil transfer: printing on kitchen aluminium foil by laser printer→press and heater (iron)→FeCL3 ethes aluminium foil easily
        3. Paper transfer: printing→press and heating→H2SO4 to chemical paper removing
        4. thermotransfer (TTF): laser printer→built-in printer's heater→paper→copper
          1. Press-N-Peel (i.e. special paper with thin film to print on
          2. paper: usual, magazine→press+heating→water and brushing. To fill gaps: acetone or IR heating
          3. thermotransfer or sticker paper→press+heating
          4. inkjet paper (i.e. Lomond )→press+heater→water and brushing. Note: inkjet paper's coating layer is pasted-into the toner layer to fill toner gaps
          5. usual paper/thermotransfer paper→GreenTRF - to fill toner gaps (just like golden or silver foil on visiting card)
        5. direct toner printing on laser printer
          1. unmodified printer and thin (0.5mm) FR-4
          2. printer's corona attached to copper foil
          3. copper foil covered with glue layer (to be removed later by alcohol)
        6. electrotransfer (ETF): laser printer→paper→copper
          1. fullpage: laser printer with heater(fuser) removed - toner is not baked
          2. halfpage: when the front corner of the paper reached a heater open the printer cover, remove the cartridge and paper with 1/2 printed (A4/letter: approx 140x200mm, A3: approx 140x300mm)
          3. fullpage: find old HUGE analog copier and open clean paper cover just after the exposure lamp turns off.
      2. photoresist mask and UV exposure→development→etching
        1. film UV photoresist (i.e.:
        2. spray UV photoresist (i.e.: Positiv 20)
      3. Inkjet direct mask (pigment ink, water-resistant ink, possibly on pre-heated PCB)→baking at 230 Celsius
      4. Inkjet direct mask on cold PCB and sprinkling with laser toner→baking
      5. silkscreen→paint mask
      6. protective paint on whole copper foil→paint removing by laser
      7. protective paint on whole copper foil→paint removing by CNC or manual scratching
      8. manual protective mask drawing by marker or ruling pen
      9. plotter/CNC mask drawing using plotter pen
    2. direct machining
      1. CNC milling + drilling
      2. CNC scratching + drilling
      3. Manual scratching
      4. power laser engraving
  3. conductive inks
    1. special inkjet printers
    2. manual conductive marker
    3. plotter/CNC with conductive marker
    4. silkscreen→conductive paint/glue (all smd's are glued instead of soldering)
  4. manual bended copper wires, point-to-point wiring (like old Tube designs)


  1. Riveting/clamping with usual copper wire→soldering
  2. Special riveting tube